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The WACC method determines the subject company's actual cost of capital by calculating the weighted average of the company's cost of debt and cost of equity. The WACC must be applied to the subject company's net cash flow to total invested capital. One of the problems with this method is that the valuator may elect to calculate WACC according to the subject company's existing capital structurethe average industry capital structureor the optimal capital structure.
From the partial differential equation in the model, known as the Black—Scholes equationone can deduce the Black—Scholes formula, which gives a theoretical estimate of the price of European-style options and shows that the option has a unique price given the risk of the security and its expected return instead replacing the security's expected return with the risk-neutral rate.
The formula led to a boom in options trading and provided mathematical legitimacy to the activities of the Chicago Board Options Exchange and other options markets around the world.
Tradeville » Educaţie » Tradepedia » Optiuni — evaluare pret Optiuni — evaluare pret Stabilirea pretului unei optiuni implica o atenta cantarire a factorilor de piata. InFisher Black si Myron Scholes au fost primii care au oferit un model matematic de incredere prin care traderii sa poata evalua primele optiunilor. Modelul, cunoscut azi drept modelul Black-Scholes, se bazeaza pe conceptul de hedge neutral al optiunii.
Merton was the first to publish a paper expanding determinarea valorii și prețului opțiunilor mathematical understanding of the options pricing model, and coined the term "Black—Scholes options pricing model". Merton and Scholes received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for their work, the committee citing their discovery of the risk neutral dynamic revision as a breakthrough that separates the option from the risk of the underlying security.
This type of hedging is called "continuously revised delta hedging " and is the basis of more complicated hedging strategies such as those engaged in by investment banks and hedge funds.
The model's assumptions have been relaxed and generalized in many directions, leading to a plethora of models that are currently used in derivative pricing and risk management. It is the insights of the model, as exemplified in the Black—Scholes formulathat are frequently used by market participants, as distinguished from the actual prices.
These insights include no-arbitrage bounds and risk-neutral pricing thanks to continuous revision. Further, the Black—Scholes equationa partial differential equation that governs the price of the option, enables pricing using numerical methods when an explicit formula is not possible.
The Black—Scholes formula has only one determinarea valorii și prețului opțiunilor that cannot be directly observed in the market: the average future volatility of the underlying asset, though it can be found from the price of other options. Since the option value whether put or call is increasing in this parameter, it can be inverted to produce a " volatility surface " that is then used to calibrate other models, e.